Dr. Kramer is the director of the Memory and Aging Center Neuropsychology program. He earned his doctorate in psychology at Baylor University and completed a post-doctoral fellowship in neuropsychology at the Martinez VA hospital. Dr. Kramer is board certified in clinical neuropsychology and has been extensively involved in studying the cognitive changes associated with brain disorders for the past three decades. He has co-authored widely-used neuropsychological measures of memory and executive functioning, and much of his work has been devoted to identifying the different ways in which aging and neurodegenerative diseases affect memory and other abilities and in utilizing these differences to improve differential diagnosis in clinic. Active areas of research use neuroimaging, neuropsychology, neuroimmunology and genetics to study the underlying biological mechanisms of cognitive aging and identifying the earliest features of neurodegenerative disease.