Dr. Paul Greengard received his PhD from Johns Hopkins in 1953. He spent five years in England receiving advanced training at the University of London, at Cambridge University and at the National Institute of Medical Research. Upon his return to the United States, Greengard worked as Director of the Department of Biochemistry at Geigy (now Novartis) Research Laboratories, in Ardsley, New York for eight years. In 1967, he left the pharmaceutical industry to return to academia. From 1968 to 1983 Greengard served as Professor of Pharmacology and Psychiatry at Yale University, at which time he moved to his current position at The Rockefeller University. In the year 2000, Greengard was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.